What are Hispanic Serving Institutions?
Hispanic-Serving Institutions (HSIs) are accredited and degree-granting public or private nonprofit institutions of higher education with at least 25 percent or more total undergraduate Hispanic full-time equivalent student enrollment. It should be noted that Title V of the Higher Education Act (HEA) of 1965, as amended in 1998--which authorizes a federal Hispanic-Serving Institutions program--applies additional criteria for specific program eligibility. To meet the Title V definition of an HSI, an institution of higher education must also have a high enrollment of needy students, low educational and general expenditures, and 25 percent or more undergraduate Hispanic full-time equivalent enrollment, where 50 percent of Hispanic students are low-income.
What are Historically Black Colleges and Universities?
Historically Black Colleges and Universities are postsecondary academic institutions founded before 1964 whose educational mission has historically been the education of Black Americans. Located primarily in the Southeastern United States, there are now about 120 HBCUs in existence, a mix of community and junior colleges, four-year colleges and universities, and public and private institutions.
Most Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs) were founded during an era when African American students were barred from attending traditionally white, postsecondary institutions. Since the Civil Rights Movement opened the doors of traditionally white colleges and universities to minority students, some policymakers have challenged the continued existence of HBCUs, arguing that they serve no purpose in an integrated system of higher education.
In fact, the Supreme Court decision in U.S. v. Fordice (1992) required states to “educationally justify or eliminate” all vestiges of segregation, including HBCUs.
What are Tribal Colleges and Universities (TCUs)?
Tribal colleges and universities (``tribal colleges'') are those institutions cited in section 532 of the Equity in Educational Land-Grant Status Act of 1994 (7 U.S.C. 301 note), any other institution that qualifies for funding under the Tribally Controlled Community College Assistance Act of 1978, (25 U.S.C. 1801 et seq.), and Navajo Community College, authorized in the Navajo Community College Assistance Act of 1978, Public Law 95-471, title II (25 U.S.C. 640a note).
Tribal Colleges and Universities were established due to the lack of higher educational opportunities for American Indians. This community began envisioning, and building colleges and universities of their very own, first in a remote reservation community on the Navajo Nation, then throughout Indian Country. As the Tribal College Movement has grown over the years, evidence of the colleges' tremendous value and need has continued to mount; and in 1996, President Clinton signed an Executive Order 13021 on Tribal Colleges and Universities.